A Guide to the Inner Earth: P to R
Paget, Walburga L. – COLLOQUIES WITH AN UNSEEN FRIEND., William Rider & Son., London., 1909., p. 36: Buried Cities beneath the ‘Great Desert’ where descendants of Atlantis allegedly live to this day, along with prehistoric flora & fauna, a land which will be discovered by surface dwellers in the 21st century according to prophecy, when the “air ships and Rontgen rays are made practically useful for exploration purposes.”
Painter, Roger – THE BROWN MOUNTAIN LIGHTS., Article in SEARCH magazine., July 1968., pp. 50-58: Describes incidents of mysterious lights emerging from Brown Mountain, 12 miles east of Highway 181 near Jones Ridge, NC., lights which are believed to emerge “from a cave or crevice on the mountain.”
Palmer, Marjorie., Ed. by., SEARCH magazine quarterly., originally edited by the late Raymond A. Palmer., Amherst Press, Amherst, WI: Many issues included articles, letters, and comments on the Shaver Mystery and the Hollow Earth / Subterranean City hypothesis.
Palmer, Raymond A.
— AMAZING STORIES magazine (science-fact & science-fiction): Most issued from 1945 to 1949 included articles, stories, letters and comments concerning the ‘cavern world’, ancient tunnels, the Inner Earth and the Shaver Mystery.
— EARTH’S CENTER OF GRAVITY – UP OR DOWN? – Article in FLYING SAUCERS magazine (Ed. by Palmer), Dec. 1958: Describes an experiment conducted by the Geodetic Survey Department which upset the Copernican theory and proved that the earth’s center of gravity does not lie at the center of the planet as previously believed.
— FLYING SAUCERS (Edited and published by Ray Palmer): Many issues contained articles and editorial material containing the author & editor’s research and beliefs pertaining to the Inner Earth and Hollow Earth mysteries. The Dec. 1959 issue contains a description of Admiral Richard E Byrd’s flight “beyond the pole” and his sighting of “iceless lands and lakes, mountains covered with trees, and even monstrous animals moving through the underbrush…” Palmer theorizes that Byrd flew over the inner edge of the ‘doughnut hole’ opening to the Hollow or Geo-Concavitic sphere existing ‘beyond’ the North Pole.
— FLYING SAUCERS magazine index., Unpublished computer printout by Gray Barker, Gray Barker Books, indicating the following issues of FLYING SAUCERS magazine as containing Hollow and Inner Earth references: Aug. 1957, vol. 1, wn. (whole number) 2; Dec. 1959, vol. 3, wn. 13; Vol. 4, wn 16; Feb. 1961, vol. wn. 18; Nov. 1962, vol. 6, wn. 28; April 1965, vol. 9. wn. 41; June 1970, vol. 13, wn. 69; Sept. 1970, vol. 13, wn. 70; Dec. 1970, vol. 13, wn. 71; March 1971, vol. 24, wn. 71; Dec. 1971, vol. 14, wn. 75; June 1972, vol. 15, wn. 77; Dec. 1972, vol. 15, wn. 79; Fall 1972, vol. 16, wn. 82.
— HIDDEN WORLD, THE., sixteen volumes, Spring 1961 through Winter 1964: Includes much of the original Shaver material that originally appeared in AMAZING STORIES magazine, and new material contributed by the late Richard S. Shaver, as well as letters from the readers and editorials by the late Raymond A. Palmer.
— HOLE AT THE POLE RE-EXAMINED, THE., a series of 5 articles in SEARCH magazine, Spring 1977 – Spring 1978 (Reprinted from SEARCH magazine: July 1970, July 1973; and FLYING SAUCERS magazine, June 1970, June 1972).
— SAUCERS FROM EARTH., Article in FLYING SAUCERS magazine, Dec. 1959: Evidence supporting the idea that Fling Saucers originate from the interior of the earth and enter and exit through the vortex-openings at the poles.
— SAUCERS FROM EARTH., Article in SEARCH magazine, July 1968, pp. 28-43: Describes the Hollow Earth theory and presents evidence suggesting that many UFOs originate from a world within the interior of the earth.
— SECRET WORLD, THE., VOL. 1 (The only volume published)., Amherst Press, Amherst, WI: Coverage of the ‘Shaver Mystery’.
— THEY FLY OVER THE POLE EVERY DAY., Article in SEARCH magazine. References to the Hollow Earth.
— WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ABOUT THE POLAR MYSTERY AREA., Article in FLYING SAUCERS magazine, Aug. 1960: Refers to the Hollow Earth and Polar entrance mysteries.
Palmer, William R. – WHY THE NORTH STAR STANDS STILL AND OTHER INDIAN LEGENDS: A band of Paiute Indians, who in relatively recent times, journeyed from their home in Nevada to the legendary ‘place of origin’ of their ancestors; a great cave within the interior of a mountain, from the top of which a great body of water could be seen to the west (the Pacific ocean?); a mountain far across a western desert, within which live the ancestors of the Paiute Indians to this day.
Paltock, Robert – THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF PETER WILKINS: A ‘Hollow Earth’ fantasy novel concerning a sailor who entered a chasm at the South Pole through which a great river surged, and after five weeks he emerges into the inner world of “Graundevolet”.
Papashvily, George & Helen – ANYTHING CAN HAPPEN., Harper & Bros., New York, NY., 1940: Tells of the discovery within the Caucasus mountain range of a cavern containing large artifacts and giant human skeletons “with heads as big as bushel baskets”… and of an ancient tunnel nearby which led down into the earth. One man who entered this tunnel never returned to the surface.
Parsons, J. C. – Letter in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter.,Vol. 1, No. 1: The discovery of an 8 ft. diameter, perfectly smooth, vertical shaft inside a cave in Tennessee. The cave was found to be well over 100 ft. deep, and discussions of possible plans to explore the shaft.
Patch, Howard R. – THE OTHER WORLD, ACCORDING TO DESCRIPTIONS IN MEDIEVAL LITERATURE., Harvard Univ. Press., Cambridge, MA., 1950., 386 pp., illus., pp. 114-115 & 233-234 contain descriptions of journeys into the interior of the earth, including the Cave of ‘St. Patrick’s Purgatory” on Station Island, County Donegal, Ireland. (Also see: Write, T.)
Patrick, Jo – Article in THE AMERICAN MERCURY magazine, May, 1960, pp. 145-149: The ‘Hollow Earth’ theory and John Cleaves Symmes’ teachings of concentric spheres within the interior of the earth.
Pauwells, Louis – See: Bergier, Jacques.
Paynter, J. E. – THE NEW WORLD ORDER AND HOW IT WILL BE ESTABLISHED., ca., 1951., Chapt 4: The polar entrance hypothesis.
Peck, John W. – SYMMES THEORY., Article in THE OHIO ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL QUARTERLY., Vol. 18, 1909., pp. 18-42.
Pence, Victor – Editor of COMSEP (See: White, Arnold).
Pennick, Nigel – SUBTERRANEAN KINGDOM., Turnstone Press Ltd., Wellingborough, England., 1981: Contains material on the Inner Earth.
Percival, Harold W.
— THINKING AND DESTINY., 1946; Word Foundation Inc., edition., Forest Hills, NY., 1964: Describes the nature of the interior of the earth and what one may expect to encounter as one journeys towards the center of the planet. The description parallels in some respects that found in ETIDORHPA, by John Uri Lloyd.
— GHOSTS THAT NEVER WERE MEN., Article in THE WORD., Vol. 15., No. 6., Sept. 1917., Theosophical Publishing Co., New York, NY., pp. 355-356: The inhabitants of the interior of the earth, “some of them human in form and some of them strange beyond fancy.”
Perkins, David – Letter in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter., Vol. 1, No. 1: Report of a strange ‘breathing well’ that drillers broke into 17 miles east of Walsenburg, CO. Representatives from the Colorado School of Mines examined it, and concluded it to be part of a tunnel system which they had tracked to Oklahoma from the Gulf of Mexico.
Perreault, Bruce A. – MISSION: PEACE., New Age Science Association., Manchester, NH., Chapt. 3: “OUR HOLLOW EARTH” – Several reports and findings which support the idea of a Geo-Concavitic or ‘Hollow’ Earth.
Perry, Clay – UNDERGROUND EMPIRE., pp. 199-201: Reference to The “East Caves of Syracuse,” a subterranean cave system running beneath the Atlantic Ocean, which ‘allegedly’ connects the British Isles with the North American continent, running beneath the surface of the Atlantic ocean floor.
Perry, Vincent L., Ed. by – INTO THE UNKNOWN., Readers Digest Association, Inc 1981., pp. 338-339: A segment of the book which refers to the ‘Hollow Earth’ theory.
Peters, Byron E. – Letter in SEARCH magazine (issue uncertain)., pp. 61: Refers to “Project Aurora” – a proposed expedition to the Inner Earth via the North Polar entrance, in an attempt to contact the “Inner-Terrans.”
Peterson, Jack. – Letter in SHAVERTRON newsletter-magazine., No. 14: The writer’s experience in the wilderness near June Lake, CA., where he observed a humanoid being come out of a strange cone-shaped machine which emerged from the ground.
Petscheck, Joyce S. – THE SILVER BIRD., Celestial Arts Publishers., Milbrae, CA., 1981., Chapts. 12-14: An advanced civilization existing at the bottom of the oceans, the last days of Atlantis, and a subterranean world lighted by a lime-green fluorescence favorable to vegetation growth… information which the author allegedly received through ‘automatic writing’ in 1976 from a human who supposedly made an ‘astral journey’ to the interior of the earth. The book reads like ‘Metaphysical fiction’.
Philip, Brother (pseud. for Dr. George Hunt Williamson) – SECRET OF THE ANDES., Neville Spearman Ltd., London., 1961: U.S. Edition by SAUCERIAN BOOKS, titled: BROTHERHOOD OF THE SEVEN RAYS: Refers to subterranean temples and tunnels in the Tiahuanaco region of Peru, and elsewhere. (Also see: Williamson, Dr. George Hunt)
Phylos, the Thibetan – A DWELLER ON TWO PLANETS., Neville Spearman Ltd., Sudbury, Suffolk, England., 442 pp.: Written with Frederick Spencer Oliver as amanuensis and describes the ‘SACH’, an ancient ‘Lemurian’ outpost located within the heart of Mt. Shasta in California. (See: Hamilton, William F.)
Pierce, Norman C. – THE DREAM MINE. (Also see: Walton, Bruce – THE DREAM MINE STORY)
PIGMY KITABOU (Author uncertain): Refers to an African tribe which went underground during an ancient ‘ice age’ in that part of the world, where they were cared for by a subterranean race of black dwarfs.
Plato (Greek Philosopher) – PHAEDO., from THE WORKS OF PLATO., Sections 132-145: Refers to vast caverns existing within the earth through which subterranean rivers flow from the surface of thee earth, and from the inner surface of ‘Tartarus’ – a vast ‘hollow’ which is the greatest of the Earth’s abysses, and which is “exceedingly large, and perforated through the ENTIRE earth.” Did Plato know about the geo-concavitic or “hollow” nature of our planet? From there the rivers flow back to the surface of the outer world through the process of pressure pushing the waters to the surface, or back to the ‘surface’ of Tartarus, some of the subterranean rivers “folding themselves once or several times around the earth, like serpents…” before returning to the inner or the outer surfaces of the planet.
Plot, Dr. (?) – HISTORY OF STAFFORDSHIRE., (publication details unavailable) The original account of the laborers in Staffordshire, England, who entered a strange subterranean world through an entrance referred to as the “Rosicrucius’s Sepulchre”. (Also see: Jennings, Hargrave & Calaias, Ronald A.)
Preece, Harold – WORLD UNDERGROUND., Article in the ROSICRUCIAN DIGEST., Nov. 1948., 8 pp.: A description of ancient civilizations which escaped inside the earth from an early natural catastrophe, and also speculations that modern man may have to find shelter within the earth in the event of a nuclear war.
Poe, Edgar Allan – THE NARRATIVE OF ARTHUR GORDON PYM OF NANTUCKET., Penguin Books., Baltimore, MD., 1975., 311 pp.: A strange unfinished semi-fictional manuscript referring to the Hollow Earth and the Polar openings. Recent editions carry an introduction by Harold Beaver (pp. 7-30) containing historical information on Hollow Earth theorists John Cleaves Symmes and Capt. Adam Seaborn, explaining their hollow earth theories. Pp. 234-244 & 267-281 also refers to the ‘Hollow Earth’.
Pound, Louis – NEBRASKA FOLKLORE., Article in THE LINCOLN SUNDAY STAR (Lincoln, Nebraska)., July 5, 1925., pp. 23-24: The story of Ponoca Cave, allegedly an entrance to huge underground caverns containing diffused electromagnetic ‘auroral’ atmospheric illumination, and also containing prehistoric plants and animals which survived ancient cataclysms by remaining safely in their huge underground ‘shelter’. These mega-caverns, said to be located beneath the northern part of Dixon county, Nebraska, were allegedly discovered by a Prof. Jeremiah Perrigone, who was very protective about revealing their location. The entrance has allegedly long since caved-in.
Powell, Col. A. E. – IS THE EARTH HOLLOW? Article in THE PSYCHIC OBSERVER (date uncertain): Describes the ‘theories’ advanced in Willis George Emerson’s fact/fiction(?) book, THE SMOKY GOD.
Prytz, John M. – THE HOLLOW EARTH HOAX., Article in FLYING SAUCERS magazine., June 1970., p. 23: Presents scientific arguments debunking the ‘Hollow Earth’ theory. However, 12 years later in a letter in the April, 1982 issue of the PSYCHIC OBSERVER, Prytz expressed his change of perspective, and admits his newfound belief in the possibility of a ‘Hollow Earth’.
Pringle, Murry T. – CAVE COMMUNITY., Article in the GREEN BAY PRESS-GAZETTE (Green Bay, Wisconsin)., Dec. 15, 1974 issue; reprinted in THE HOLLOW HASSLE newsletter., Oct. 1982: ‘Cavern Communities’ that have been established or re-established in France and other countries.
PSYCHIC AUSTRALIAN: Some back issued contain material on the Inner Earth mystery, and related topics.
PSYCHIC OBSERVER: Feb.-Mar., 1973 issue., Contains an article on the ‘Shaver Mystery’.
PURDUE UNIVERSITY EXPONENT (Campus Newspaper)., See: SHAVERTRON., No. 7., Spring, 1981 (reprint): Letter from an anonymous reader regarding the inner earth.
Quackenbush, Ezra – Unpublished Diary in the British Museum: The author, a lone survivor of a shipwreck near the coast of India, swims to a desert island where a strange race of tall, blonde ‘underground people’ cared for him until he was rescued by a passing ship.
Rampa, T. Lobsang (pseud. for Hoskins, Cyril T.)
— THE CAVE OF THE ANCIENTS., Corgi Books., London, England., American editions by Bantam & Ballantine Books: Describes huge ancient chambers beneath the Himalayan mountain range of Tibet, filled with marvelous fantastic ancient machines, records, and wonders from a prehistoric civilization.
— THE HERMIT., Corgi Books., London, England., 1971: A race pf extraterrestrials who have an underground base in caverns and tunnels deep within the Himalayan mountains of Tibet.
— Letter in ‘THE SHAVER MYSTERY AND THE INNER EARTH’, edited by Timothy Green Beckley (Gray Barker Books) telling of the discoveries, concerning the “in-worlders”, which have been suppressed by certain covert segments of the government.
— TIBETAN SAGE (Dr. Rampa’s last book – he died in 1981). The authors’ experience as a young boy of the lamaseries of Tibet, and of his travels with his guide, the Lama Mingyar Dondup, into the timeless worlds of the caves of the Potala, where the young disciple witnessed breath-taking visions and phenomena of the past and present.
Ranck, G. W. – HISTORY OF LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY: The discovery and subsequent loss of a tunnel entrance in or near the city of Lexington, Kentucky… which upon exploration was found to lead into vast subterranean chambers containing ancient altars, artifacts, idols, and more than 2,000 human mummies from a vanished civilization.
Randolph, Vance – OZARK GHOST STORIES: Describes the legend of a ‘bottomless pit’ in the Ozarks, surrounded by great cliffs, and from which strange sounds, lights, odors, and even strange ‘people’ are said to have emerged, from the pit OR from a point nearby. Foreigners have also been observed making regular pilgrimages to the pit, and have been seen throwing odd objects into it.
Raposo, Francisco – MANUSCRIPT NO, 512., Microfilm available from ‘Biblioteca Nationale’, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The English translation appears in LOST TRAILS; LOST CITIES, by Percy H. Fawcett; An old Portugese manuscript detailing an expedition to the Mato Grosso area of Brazil in 1734. The expedition entered a small fissure in the side of a mountain, which led into a hidden valley and to an enormous ancient hidden city with several very deep underground shafts around its edge, along with two strange men near the ruins who had “white skin, long black hair, and wore white robes.”
Ravenscroft, Trevor – THE SPEAR OF DESTINY., Bantom Books., New York, NY., 1973. Chapt. 19 – ‘THE CRITICAL TURNING POINT IN TIME’, and chapt. 20 – ‘AGHARTHI & SHAMBHALA’: Refer’s to E. Bulwer Lytton’s book THE COMING RACE, the legendary power of ‘Vril’ used by the subterranean race in Lytton’s book, and Adolph Hitler’s obsession with the book – and his creation of the secret Nazi ‘Vril Society’ to apparently prepare Germany for a future encounter with this subterranean race and make a secret alliance with them, and jointly rule the planet – surface and subsurface. Also refers to Willy Ley, and the legends of the subterranean ‘world’ of Agarthi and Shambhala, which Nazi explorers tried to discover during their secret expeditions to Tibet.
Raynes, Brent – Article in SHAVERTRON., Summer, 1980: Capt. James Cook’s encounter with a friendly race of 7-ft. tall ‘Antarctican’ beings who communicated with his party through telepathic means, during his 1772-1775 expedition to the South Pole, according to a highly classified ‘diary’ written by Capt. Cook, which was discovered by an individual in the top secret archives in a U.S. Army base in Texas.
Reed, William – PHANTOM OF THE POLES., 1906. Reprinted by HEALTH RESEARCH: Reed was among the original theorists of the 1900’s to advance the theory and idea of a Hollow Earth, inhabited within.
Renaud, Robert P. – THE BOB RENAUD STORY – PART 31., “Flying Saucer’s International”., official publication of AFSCA (Amalgamated Flying Saucer Clubs of America)., Yucca Valley, CA., Issue No. 25 contained the author’s story of his encounter with beings from the planet ‘Korender’, who have established a massive subterranean (‘UFO’) base beneath the surface of Massachusetts.
Revis, B. B. – BYRD WATCHER., Letter-article in SAGA magazine, June 1970: Refers to Admiral Byrd’s controversial expedition to the North Pole, and speculations concerning his alleged discovery of the allegedly vast hidden funnel-like ‘orifice’ into the ‘hollow’ geo-concavitic interior of the earth.
Rittlinger, Herbert – THE MEASURELESS OCEAN: Reference to a tunnel discovered in the South Pacific island of Temuen, the end or beginning of which has not been found.
Rhoden, Joseph R. Jr. – Letter in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Feb. 1948., p. 165: Refers to the ancient, secret tunnels of the Inca, running beneath the surface of Peru.
Robinson, John J.
— TWO INCREDIBLE STORIES. Chapter in THE SHAVER MYSTERY AND THE INNER EARTH., edited by Timothy Green Beckley., Gray Barker Books: Strange encounters with beings from the ‘subterranean world’.
— UNDERGROUND ENTRANCES., Chapter in THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD., edited by Timothy Green Beckley., Gray Barker Books: Several accounts of tunnels, cave entrances, and the stories behind them.
Roe, Katherine H. – SUBTERRANEAN WORLDS UNDER OUR FEET. Article in THE NEW ATLANTEAN JOURNAL., Spring 1981: Several accounts of tunnels and ancient caves throughout the world.
Roerich, Nicholas – SHAMBHALA., Frederick Stokes & Co., New York, NY., Chapt. – SUBTERRANEAN DWELLERS: Traditions and beliefs in the existence of ancient tunnels stretching beneath the oceans and continents, and of a subterranean ‘world’ inhabited by civilizations of technically advanced humans, including the peaceful “Chud” – and the great Kingdom of “Agharti” which abandoned the surface of the earth in ancient times, a subterranean Kingdom with it’s capitol city of “Shambhala” (which is said to be the center of a global subterranean network – for instance the underground city named ‘Telos’ which is said to lie deep beneath Mt. Shasta in California, is believed to be a western extension of the ‘Agharti network’). Also similar stories collected by the author from the natives of Mongolia and other countries of the Far East. (Also see: Ossendowski, Ferdinand)
Roger, Albert – IS THERE A SHANGRI-LA IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS? Article in THE NEW ATLANTEAN JOURNAL., Summer, 1980: Reports of a hidden valley paradise surrounded on all sides by high mountains, which lies hidden somewhere deep in the heart of the Rockies of Colorado, and which can only be entered through a secret ancient tunnel.
— Letter in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Sept. 1946., pp. 177-178: The writer’s contact with a race of tall, highly advance, and peaceful subterranean humans living in underground cities beneath the surface of Mexico.
— Letter in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Dec. 1946., pp. 162-164: Tells of the reactions from readers to her earlier letter in the Sept. 1946 issue of AMAZING STORIES.
— I HAVE BEEN IN THE CAVES. A story in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Jan. 1947 issue: Describes the author’s three-year stay with a race of tall, friendly subterranean ‘giants’, who due to their peaceful existence and intelligence are far more technologically advanced in many respects than those on the surface. These people, known as the “Nephli”, claim to be descended from an ancient race who also explored and colonized other star-systems, and they live in huge cavern-cities deep beneath the surface of Mexico. One of the enterances to these underground cities, the one which Ms. Rogers entered according to her account, is located near the Mexican city of Ixtaccihuatl… with another entrance being within the “Cave de los Vientos” (Or, the “Cave of the Winds”). There is a cave by this name which is part of the huge “Brinco Sistema Purification” cavern network, however whether this is the one Ms. Rogers referred to, or another one with a similar name, is uncertain.
— Letter in AMAZING STORIES magazine., Feb. 1948., p. 105: Tells about the author’s book, “BEGINNING”, which is based on the original article in AMAZING STORIES magazine – “I Have Been in the Caves”, yet much more detailed and updated than the original version. Published by the author., 1947., 77 pp. Details the author’s stay in the caverns of the “NEPHLI”, including the science, history, and religion of this race. A small number of copies were printed (Much of the Margaret Roger’s story appears in Eric Norman’s books, THE UNDER PEOPLE, and THIS HOLLOW EARTH).
Rosenberger, Joseph – DEATH MERCHANT: THE SHAMBHALLA STRIKE., Pinnacle Books., E. Los Angeles, CA.: Fiction (?). Includes interesting footnotes and references to the “King of the World” and Ferdinand Ossendowski’s travels in the Far East. (Also see: Ossendowski, Ferdinand & Roerich, Nicholas)
Ross, John C. – Letter in FATE magazine., Nov. 1950., p. 88: Includes a photograph of the Great Pyramid of Shensi, China, which the writer – a U.S. Air Force pilot – took while on a reconnaissance mission. According to R. C. “Doc” Anderson, this pyramid contains an entry point to a huge tunnel system. (Also see: Doc Anderson’s account in THIS HOLLOW EARTH, by Warren Smith)
Rothovius, Andrew E. – MYSTERIOUS STONE VILLAGE IN NORTHERN SALEM, NH – Article in FATE magazine., Sept. 1962., pp. 60-66: Stone steps leading into the earth discovered at the bottom of a strange ‘well’ in New Hampshire. Although the shaft was blocked by boulders which archeologists were unable to remove, the stone stairwell below was visible through the boulders. (Also see: Norman, Eric – THE UNDERPEOPLE)
ROUND ROBIN – official journal of BSRF (Borderland Sciences Research Foundation)., Vista, CA.: Many issues from 1945 and onward included ‘Shaver Mystery’ and Inner Earth material.
Roussea, Victor – EYE OF BALAMOK: Story of a gold prospector in Australia, who enters a subterranean world where he finds the descendants of the Atlanteans living inside the Hollow Earth. Fact/fiction?
Royal, V. J. – UNDERGROUND CITIES., Chapter in THE SUBTERRANEAN WORLD, edited by Timothy Green Beckley., Gray Barker Books., Jane Lew, WV.: The author’s visit to a fantastic cavern city deep beneath the earth, inhabited by a strange race of technically-advanced ‘alien’ beings.